Afghan Opium Production Hits All-Time High, Thanks to US Occupation

US soldiers patrolling in an opium poppy field in Afghanistan
US soldiers patrolling in an opium poppy field in Afghanistan (source)

(via Counterpunch)

“2014 was a banner year for Afghanistan’s booming opium industry. According to a United Nations annual survey released on Wednesday, opium cultivation set a record in 2014, increasing by an impressive 7 percent year-over-year and up nearly 50 percent from 2012. Afghanistan presently produces 80 percent of the world’s heroin which provides billions of dollars in illicit profits for the powerful drug Mafia. Heroin trafficking and production have flourished under US military occupation and transformed Afghanistan into a dysfunctional narco-colony.

Readers who follow events in Afghanistan will recall that the Taliban had virtually eradicated poppy production before Bush and Cheney launched their war in 2001. The Pentagon reversed that achievement by installing the same bloodthirsty warlords who had been in power before the Taliban. Naturally, this collection of psychopaths–who the western media lauded as the “Northern Alliance”–picked up where they left off and resumed their drug operations boosting their own wealth and power by many orders of magnitude while meeting the near-insatiable demand for heroin in capitals across Europe and America. […]”

Read full article: Whitney, Mike “Afghan Opium Production Hits All-Time High“, Counterpunch, November 14-16, 2014

 

 

U.S. troops protecting the opium/heroin industry in Afghanistan

‘[…] Throughout the forty years of the Cold War, the CIA joined with urban gangsters and rural warlords, many of them major drug dealers, to mount covert operations against communists around the globe. In one of history’s accidents, the Iron Curtain fell along the border of the Asian opium zone, which stretches across 5,000 miles of mountains from Turkey to Thailand. In Burma during the 1950s, in Laos during the 1970s, and in Afghanistan during the 1980s, the CIA allied with highland warlords to mobilize tribal armies against the Soviet Union and China.

U.S. soldier defending Afghan opium poppy fields.In each of these covert wars, Agency assets-local informants-used their alliance with the CIA to become major drug lords, expanding local opium production and shipping heroin to international markets, the United States included. Instead of stopping this drug dealing, the Agency tolerated it and, when necessary, blocked investigations. Since ruthless drug lords made effective anti-communist allies and opium amplified their power, CIA agents mounting delicate operations on their own, half a world from home, had no reason to complain. For the drug lords, it was an ideal arrangement. The CIA’s major covert operations-often lasting a decade-provided them with de facto immunity within enforcement-free zones.

In Laos in the 1960s, the CIA battled local communists with a secret army of 30,000 Hmong-a tough highland tribe whose only cash crop was opium. A handful of CIA agents relied on tribal leaders to provide troops and Lao generals to protect their cover. When Hmong officers loaded opium on the ClA’s proprietary carrier Air America, the Agency did nothing. And when the Lao army’s commander, General Ouane Rattikone, opened what was probably the world’s largest heroin laboratory, the Agency again failed to act.

“The past involvement of many of these officers in drugs is well known,” the ClA’s Inspector General said in a still-classified 1972 report, “yet their goodwill . . . considerably facilitates the military activities of Agency-supported irregulars.”

US Marines patrolling opium poppy fields in Helmand Province, Afghanistan
U.S. Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Antonio Wilccoxen, an M249 Squad Automatic Weapon gunner, and fellow U.S. Marines with 1st Platoon, Company I, Battalion Landing Team 3/8, Regimental Combat Team 8, walk through a poppy field during a security patrol from their patrol base in Helmand province’s Green Zone, west of the Nar-e Saraj canal, March 31(For more photos of U.S. troops in Afghan poppy fields see here and here)

Indeed, the CIA had a detailed know ledge of drug trafficking in the Golden Triangle-that remote, rugged corner of Southeast Asia where Burma, Thailand, and Laos converge. In June 1971, The New York Times published extracts from an other CIA report identifying twenty-one opium refineries in the Golden Triangle and stating that the “most important are located in the areas around Tachilek, Burma; Ban Houei Sai and Nam Keung in Laos; and Mae Salong in Thailand.” Three of these areas were controlled by CIA allies: Nam Keung by the chief of CIA mercenaries for northwestern Laos; Ban Houei Sai by the commander of the Royal Lao Army; and Mae Salong by the Nationalist Chinese forces who had fought for the Agency in Burma. The CIA stated that the Ban Houei Sai laboratory, which was owned by General Ouane, was ‘ believed capable of processing 100 kilos of raw opium per day,” or 3.6 tons of heroin a year-a vast output considering the total yearly U.S. consumption of heroin was then less than ten tons.

By 1971, 34 percent of all U.S. soldiers in South Vietnam were heroin addicts, according to a White House survey. There were more American heroin addicts in South Vietnam than in the entire United States-largely supplied from heroin laboratories operated by CIA allies, though the White House failed to acknowledge that unpleasant fact. Since there was no indigenous local market, Asian drug lords started shipping Golden Triangle heroin not consumed by the GIs to the United States, where it soon won a significant share of the illicit market. […]

Within a few years, the currents of global geopolitics then shifted in ways that pushed the CIA into new alliances with drug traffickers. In 1979, the Soviets invaded Afghanistan and the Sandinista revolution seized Nicaragua, prompting two CIA covert operations with some revealing similarities. During the 1980s, while the Soviets occupied Afghanistan, the CIA, working through Pakistan’s Inter-Service Intelligence, spent some $2 billion to support the Afghan resistance. When the operation started in 1979, this region grew opium only for regional markets and produced no heroin. Within two years, however, the Pakistan-Afghanistan borderlands became the world’s top heroin producer, supplying 60 percent of U.S. demand. In Pakistan, the heroin-addict population went from near zero in 1979 to 5,000 in 1981 and to 1.2 million by 1985-a much steeper rise than in any other nation.

“Opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan reached a sobering record high in 2013. According to the 2013 Afghanistan Opium Survey, cultivation amounted to some 209,000 hectares, outstripping the earlier record in 2007 of 193,000 hectares, and representing a 36 per cent increase over 2012. […]“

UNODC Afghanistan Opium Survey 2013

CIA assets again controlled this heroin trade. As the Mujaheddin guerrillas seized territory inside Afghanistan, they ordered peasants to plant opium as a revolutionary tax. Across the border in Pakistan, Afghan leaders and local syndicates under the protection of Pakistan Intelligence operated hundreds of heroin laboratories. During this decade of wide-open drug-dealing, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency in Islamabad failed to instigate major seizures or arrests.

In May 1990, as the CIA operation was winding down, The Washington Post published a front-page expose charging that Gulbudin Hekmatar, the ClA’s favored Afghan leader, was a major heroin manufacturer. The Post argued, in a manner similar to the San Jose Mercury News’s later report about the contras, that U.S. officials had refused to investigate charges of heroin dealing by its Afghan allies “because U.S. narcotics policy in Afghanistan has been subordinated to the war against Soviet influence there.”

In 1995, the former CIA director of the Afghan operation, Charles Cogan, admitted the CIA had indeed sacrificed the drug war to fight the Cold War. “Our main mission was to do as much damage as possible to the Soviets. We didn’t really have the resources or the time to devote to an investigation of the drug trade,” he told an Australian television reporter. “I don’t think that we need to apologize for this. Every situation has its fallout…. There was fallout in terms of drugs, yes. But the main objective was accomplished. The Soviets left Afghanistan.”

Again, distance and complexity insulated the CIA from any political fallout. Once the heroin left Pakistan’s laboratories, the Sicilian mafia managed its export to the United States, and a chain of syndicate-controlled pizza parlors distributed the drugs to street gangs in American cities, according to reports by the Drug Enforcement Agency. Most ordinary Americans did not see the links between the ClA’s alliance with Afghan drug lords, the pizza parlors, and the heroin on U.S. streets. […]’

Excerpt from Alfred McCoy, “Drug Fallout” (The Progressive, 1997)

 

See also:

* Opium and the CIA: Can the US Triumph in the Drug-Addicted War in Afghanistan?

* More Photos of U.S. Troops Patrolling Opium Fields in Afghanistan (Public Intelligence)

UNODC Afghanistan Opium Survey 2013

“Opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan reached a sobering record high in 2013. According to the 2013 Afghanistan Opium Survey, cultivation amounted to some 209,000 hectares, outstripping the earlier record in 2007 of 193,000 hectares, and representing a 36 per cent increase over 2012. […]”

UNODC Afghanistan Opium Survey 2013

U.S. Marines Lance Cpl. Zachary Mizasawa, top, an M249 squad automatic weapon gunner, and Lance Cpl. Kevin Gonzalezsierra, a rifleman, both with 1st Platoon, Company I, Battalion Landing Team 3/8, Regimental Combat Team 8, hold in place while a group of Afghan boys tend poppy crops during a security patrol from their patrol base in Helmand province's Green Zone, west of the Nahr-e Saraj canal, April 7, 2011. Elements of 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit deployed to Afghanistan to provide regional security in Helmand province in support of the International Security Assistance Force.
U.S. Marines Lance Cpl. Zachary Mizasawa, top, an M249 squad automatic weapon gunner, and Lance Cpl. Kevin Gonzalezsierra, a rifleman, both with 1st Platoon, Company I, Battalion Landing Team 3/8, Regimental Combat Team 8, hold in place while a group of Afghan boys tend poppy crops during a security patrol from their patrol base in Helmand province’s Green Zone, west of the Nahr-e Saraj canal, April 7, 2011. Elements of 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit deployed to Afghanistan to provide regional security in Helmand province in support of the International Security Assistance Force. (Source)

Thanks NATO! (from Lashkar Gah, Afghanistan)

Below are photos taken of children who were severely wounded in a NATO bombing raid in the Kajaki area of Helmand Province, and taken to the hospital in Lashkar Gah, hours away. This is the reality of the wars in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq.

Child victim of NATO bombing

“We really want children to be a part of the NATO experience,”

Lori Healey, Chicago NATO Host Committee Executive Director

Child victim of NATO bombing

Child victim of NATO bombing

“The American atrocities in Afghanistan roll on like a drumbeat from hell. With every affront to the human and national dignity of the Afghan people, the corporate media feign shock and quickly conclude that a few bad apples are responsible for U.S. crimes, that it’s all a mistake and misunderstanding, rather than the logical result of a larger crime: America’s attempt to dominate the world by force. But even so, with the highest paid and best trained military in the world – a force equipped with the weapons and communications gear to exercise the highest standards of control known to any military in history – one would think that commanders could keep their troops from making videos of urinating on dead men, or burning holy books, or letting loose homicidal maniacs on helpless villagers.

These three latest atrocities have brought the U.S. occupation the point of crisis – hopefully, a terminal one. But the whole war has been one atrocity after another, from the very beginning, when the high-tech superpower demonstrated the uncanny ability to track down and incinerate whole Afghan wedding parties – not just once, but repeatedly. Quite clearly, to the Americans, these people have never been more than ants on the ground, to be exterminated at will.

The Afghans, including those on the U.S. payroll, repeatedly use the word “disrespect” to describe American behavior. But honest people back here in the belly of the beast know that the more accurate term is racism. The United States cannot help but be a serial abuser of the rights of the people it occupies, especially those who are thought of as non-white, because it is a thoroughly racist nation. A superpower military allows them to act out this characteristic with impunity.”

— Glen Ford, “The U.S. Empire’s Achilles Heel: Its Barbaric Racism

Photos taken by Maso Notarianni in the Emergency Hospital in Lashkar Gah, Afghanistan (source)