On this day, March 23, 1918, 101 members of the radical labor union Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) went on trial in Chicago for opposing World War I. They were charged with violating the Espionage Act and Selective Service Act for their anti-war activities, such as distributing literature which criticized war and encouraging people to resist the draft.
The jury found them all guilty, and the judge sentenced Big Bill Haywood and 14 others to 20 years in prison. 33 others were given ten years each, 34 received five year sentences, and 18 received two year sentences. They were also fined a total of $2,500,000.
The trial imprisoned almost all of the IWW’s most active organizers — including their national/regional organizers, Executive Board members, and newspaper editors, amongst others, and played a major role in the decline of the IWW over the following years.
“To want bosses and at the same time to want to be free is to want the impossible. It is necessary to choose once and for all between two things: either to be free, completely free, refusing all authority, or to be enslaved perpetuating the power of man over man.”
— Ricardo Flores Magón (‘Without Bosses’, 1914)
On this day in 1922, the Mexican anarchist Ricardo Flores Magón died in Leavenworth Penitentiary, Kansas, while serving a 20 year prison sentence for publishing an anti-war editorial in his newspaper Regeneración. He was one of over 1000 people in the U.S. who were imprisoned under the Espionage Act, for the crime of opposing World War I.